Google claimed that they developed a machine that required only a few minutes to perform the task that would take even a supercomputer at least 10,000 years to compute on October 23, 2019. According to Google, they were able to achieve " quantum supremacy" in their device called Sycamore which solved a difficult problem in just 200 seconds. So what is Quantum Supremacy?

## Quantum Supremacy

Quantum Supremacy is a goal of illustrating the power of quantum devices in solving a problem that no classic computers can solve in a real-time. It involves both building of powerful quantum computer as well as computational-complexity-theoretic for finding a problem which can be solved by quantum computer with superpolynomial speedup.

Quantum computer totally runs on the laws of physics which are not implemented in a classic computer which is a major change. The quantum computer is stated to be 1.5 trillion faster than classical computers. Quantum Supremacy is something achieved with the help of quantum mechanics for solving a problem that is extremely difficult or even considered impossible for classic computers.

Source: physicsworld.com

Quantum computers don't use bits for the calculations which exist only in two states either 0 or 1. It uses something called " qubits" which can exist as both 0 and 1 simultaneously. This state of occurring 0 and 1 simultaneously is called a superposition state and this is the main advantage of quantum computer or the classic computer.

If we look in classic computers, it is able to store just four combinations for two bits at a given time (00, 01,10, 11). But a pair of qubits can store all those four combinations simultaneously. Computer's power will increase exponentially on the addition of bits. The quantum computer announced by Google has 53 qubit which is able to store 253 values or more than 10 quadrillion combinations.

This number can get even more rise up with the property of quantum mechanic called " Entangled states". According to Albert Einstein particles interacted at some point can be entangled. This means we can know the state of one particle by measuring the state of another particle, regardless of their distances.

The Quantum computer developed by Google consists of superconducting metal entangling 53 qubits in a complex superposition state. This entangled qubit is able to generate a random number between 0-253. But some random numbers show up more than others due to quantum interference. The patterns arise from their uneven distributions when computer measure those random numbers millions of times.

By taking advantage of entanglement and superposition Martinis's lab was able to produce the distribution pattern using the Sycamore chip in 200 seconds.

Yes, Google has achieved great attainment in the development process of Quantum computing but it is still in its infancy.

Source: newscientist.com

## How much does a Quantum computer cost?

Right now several companies like IBM are attempting to build Quantum computers using superconducting flux loop technology. We can expect its mass production ( at least 10 similar products) within 6 years of time and may continue to be produced for 5-10 years until they get replaced with the second generation of computers.

Source: wired.com

The factory set up for Quantum computer including clean rooms, chip-making equipment, labour and overhead can cost over $100 million.

The final cost depends on the number of computers produced. If the number is less than 100 the retail price could be around $25 million and the price will come down if large numbers are produced.

## Readers Comment